Menna Aluthma Eka... Pissu Hadenawa

What is IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE? What does IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE mean?

The Audiopedia · 6,589 views
What is IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE? What does IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE mean? - IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE meaning - IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE definition - IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Tolerance is a fundamental property of the immune system. Tolerance involves non-self discrimination which is the ability of the normal immune system to recognize and respond to foreign antigens, but not self antigens. Autoimmunity is evoked when this tolerance to self antigen is broken. Tolerance within an individual is normally evoked as a fetus. This is known as maternal-fetal tolerance where T cells expressing receptors specific for a particular antigen enter the circulation of the developing fetus via the placenta.

After pre-T cells leave the bone marrow where they are synthesized, they are moved to the thymus where the maturation of T cells occurs. It is here where the first wave of T cell tolerance arises. Within the thymus, pre-T cells will encounter various self and foreign antigens present in the thymus that enter the thymus from peripheral sites via the circulatory system. Within the thymus, pre-T cells undergo a selection process where they must be positively selected and should avoid negative selection. T cells that bind with low avidity to self-MHC receptors are positively selected for maturation, those that do not die by apoptosis. Cells that survive positive selection, but bind strongly to self-antigens are negatively selected also by active induction of apoptosis. This negative selection is known as clonal deletion, one of the mechanisms for T cell tolerance. Approximately 99 percent of pre-T cells within the thymus are negatively selected. Only approximately 1 percent are positively selected for maturity.

However, there is only a limited repertoire of antigen that T cells can encounter within the thymus. T cell tolerance then must occur within the periphery after the induction of T cell tolerance within the thymus as a more diverse group of antigens can be encountered in peripheral tissues. This same positive and negative selection mechanism, but in peripheral tissues, is known as clonal anergy. The mechanism of clonal anergy is important to maintain tolerance to many autologous antigens. Active suppression is the other known mechanism of T cell tolerance. Active suppression involves the injection of large amounts of foreign antigen in the absence of an adjuvant which leads to a state of unresponsiveness. This unresponsive state is then transferred to a naive recipient from the injected donor to induce a state of tolerance within the recipient.

Tolerance is also produced in B cells. There are also various processes which lead to B cell tolerance. Just as in T cells, clonal deletion and clonal anergy can physically eliminate autoreactive B cell clones. Receptor editing is another mechanism for B cell tolerance. This involves the reactivation or maintenance of V(D)J recombination in the cell which leads to the expression of novel receptor specificity through V region gene rearrangements which will create variation in the heavy and light immunoglobulin (Ig) chains.